Yes. The IRS can apply all or part of your joint refund to your spouse's legally enforceable past-due debt.
You can file Form 8379: injured spouse allocation to recover your share of the joint refund if:
- Made and reported payments like federal income tax withholding or federal estimated tax payments
- Claimed the Earned Income Credit (EIC) or other refundable credit on the joint return
The IRS must review your return to allocate part of the refund to you and part to your spouse's back taxes. It usually takes 11-14 weeks to process your refund.